Place eggs in a saucepan and cover with water. Bring to a boil, remove from heat, and let eggs stand in hot water for 15 minutes. Remove eggs from hot water, cool under cold running water, and peel.
Bring vinegar, sugar, and salt to a boil in a saucepan until sugar is dissolved. Remove from heat.
Place eggs, garlic, and bay leaf in a 1-quart mason jar; top with vinegar mixture. Seal jar and refrigerate for at least 1 week.